Lost friends theory
In medical science, the hypothesis, hygiene hypothesis, is a states that explain that a lack of early childhood exposure to the infectious agents, symbiotic organisms and most importantly parasites increases the susceptibility to allergic and autoimmune diseases by suppressing the natural development of the immune system of human. Particularly, lack of exposure is thought to lead to defects in establishment of better immune tolerance. The hypothesis has also been named the "biome depletion theory" and also the "lost friends theory"
The initial formulation of the hygiene hypothesis dates bat to 1989 when Strachan published a paper and claimed that lower incidence of infection in early time of life (childhood) could be an explanation for the rapid 20th century increase in allergic diseases such as asthma and hay fever
Today, it is also recognized that the "reduction in microbial exposure" concept applies to a much wider range of chronic inflammatory illness than asthma and hay fever, which can be includes diseases as type 1 diabetes and multiple sclerosis (MS), and also some types of mental problems such as depression and even cancer.
In 2003 Graham Rook published a paper, the "old friends hypothesis", which had offered a more rational explanation for the link among microbial exposure and some inflammatory disorders. He discussed that the vital microbial exposures are not infections such as colds, influenza, measles and other usual childhood infections which have evolved about recently, over the last 10,000 years, yet rather the microbes, parasites, already present during mammalian and human evolution, that could persist in small hunter gatherer groups as microbiota, tolerated the latent infections or carrier states. Rook also proposes that we have become very dependent on these "old friends" that our immune systems neither develop properly nor function properly in their absence.
Strachan's original idea of the hygiene hypothesis also centered around the idea that smaller families (with less family members) provided insufficient microbial exposure because of less human to human transmission of infections, yet also because of "improved household amenities and better standards of personal hygiene. It seems possible that this was the reason he called it the "hygiene hypothesis". On the other hand, the "hygiene revolution" of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries may play a major role, it now seems more possible that, although public health measures including sanitation, potable water and garbage collection were instrumental in reducing our exposure to diseases such as cholera, typhoid and so on, they also deprived us of our exposure to the "old friends" that occupy the same environmental habitats.]
The rise of autoimmune diseases and acute lymphoblastic leukemia in young people in the developed world was linked to the hygiene hypothesis.
the re are evidences indicate that autism is also correlated to factors (such as some cytokines) that are indicative of an immune impairment. One article speculated that the lack of early childhood exposure could be a result in autism.
The risk of chronic inflammatory disorders also depends on factors such as food diet, pollution, physical activity, obesity, socioeconomic factors and even stress. Genetic predisposition can be also a factor.
Effects of parasitic worms or helminths on the immune system of humans
Helminthic therapy, or worm therapy, is the treatment of autoimmune disorders by means of deliberate infestation with a worm larva or ova. Helminthic therapy is today being studied as a promising treat for some autoimmune diseases such as Crohn's disease, multiple sclerosis (MS), asthma, and ulcerative colitis. Autoimmune liver disease can be modulated by active helminthic infections.
The anti-inflammatory effects of helminthic infections are prompting interest research into diseases that involve inflammation, yet that are not currently considered to include autoimmunity or immune dys-regulation as a causative factors. Heart disease and arteriosclerosis have same epidemiological profiles as autoimmune disorders witch both involve inflammation. Their increased incidence and prevalence cannot be attributed to environmental factors alone. Research done lately explored the eradication of parasitic worms as contributing to this discrepancy.
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